Wednesday, June 3, 2009

Latin Cognomina


Here's a great list of Latin cognomina from
"The Origin of Roman Praenomina," by George Davis Chase. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, Vol. 8 (1897), pp. 103-184.



Latin Cognomina


Traits



  • Capito 'big-head'
  • Cotta 'cowlick' (?)1
  • Nasica 'prominent nose'
  • Naso 'large nose'
  • Silus 'pug-nosed'
  • Silo 'pug-nosed'
  • Licinus 'bent upward' (of the nose ?)
  • Mento 'long chin'
  • Dentio, Denter, 'prominent teeth'
  • Brocchus 'prominent teeth'
  • Labeo 'thick lips'
  • Chilo 'large-lipped'
  • Flaccus 'flop-eared'
  • Strabo 'squinter'
  • Codes 'blind in one eye,' for Kyklops
  • Paetus, Paetinus 'blink-eyed '
  • Luscus, Lusci- nus 'one-eyed'
  • Fronto, Cilo 'prominent forehead'
  • Bucca 'big cheeks,' or 'bawler'
  • Scaeva (sc. manus) 'left-handed'
  • Scaevola, diminutive of the same
  • Laevinus 'left-handed'
  • Laeca 'left-handed'
  • Unimanus 'one-handed'
  • Varus 'knock-kneed'
  • Valgus 'bow-legged'
  • Sura, Sulla 'prominent calves'
  • Scaurus 'swollen ankles'
  • Crassipes 'thick-foot '
  • Plautus flat-foot'
  • Plancus 'flat-foot'
  • Pedo 'broad-foot,' from pes
  • Pansa 'broad-foot'
  • Falto (-= Falco) 'a person with the great toes turned in'
  • Dossenus, Dorso 'hunchback'
  • Coxsa 'prominent hips'
  • Galba 'fat-paunch'
  • Mammula 'little- breast'
  • Scapula 'prominent shoulders'
  • Balbus, Blaesus 'stammerer'
  • Blasio 'stammerer'
  • Rocus 'hoarse'
  • Tubero, Tubertus 'bumpy'
  • Verrucosus 'warty'
  • Macatus 'spotted'
  • Mancinus 'maimed'
  • Peticus 'scabby' (?)
  • Callus 'thick-skinned,' or Galus
  • Nerva 'sinewy'
  • Barbatus 'bearded'
  • Barba 'long-beard'
  • Barbo 'long-beard'
  • Ahenobarbus 'bronze (colored) beard'
  • Comatus 'long-haired'
  • Caesar 'hairy'
  • Crispinus 'curly hair,'s
  • Cincinnatus 'curly hair'
  • Cinnus 'curly hair'
  • Elva or Helva 'light bay hair'
  • Lanatus 'woolly'
  • Glabrio 'bald-head'
  • Calvus 'bald'
  • Calvinus 'baldish'
  • Vulso 'plucked'
  • Rufus 'red-haired'
  • Rufinus 'reddish-haired'
  • Rufio 'red-haired'
  • Rutilus 'red- haired'
  • Flavus 'fair-haired'
  • Albus 'white (haired?) '
  • Albinus 'whitish (haired ?)'
  • Purpureo 'rosy (complexioned) '
  • Niger 'dark'
  • Florus 'shining (complexioned)'
  • Ambustus 'sun-burned'
  • Curio 'emaciated'
  • Pennus 'sharp (featured)'
  • Macer 'lean'
  • Macerinus 'leanish'
  • Crassus 'fat'
  • Bassus 'stout'
  • Paullus 'short'
  • Longus 'tall'
  • Longinus 'longish'
  • Pulcher 'handsome'
  • Curvus 'bent'
  • Drusus 'stiff'


Habits



  • Casca 'old-fashioned,'
  • Rusticus 'living in the country, countrified'
  • Alienus 'foreign'
  • Cato 'sagacious,'
  • Nero 'noble'
  • Severus 'stern'
  • Violens 'furious'
  • Lepidus 'agreeable'
  • Frugi 'temperate'
  • Magnus 'great'
  • Pius 'dutiful'
  • Carus 'dear'
  • Imperiosus 'haughty'
  • Augustus 'majestic'
  • Nobilior 'nobler'
  • Molliculus 'voluptuous'
  • Venox 'given to hunting'
  • Lentulus 'rather slow'
  • Celer 'swift'
  • Fessus 'wearied'
  • Brutus 'coarse'
  • Tremulus 'shaking'
  • Varro and Varo (= Baro?) 'a foolish person'
  • Regillus 'royal'
  • Potitus 'boss'
  • Structus 'built up'
  • Bibulus 'tippler'
  • Bibaculus 'tippler,'
  • Tappo, Tappulus 'tippler'
  • Dives 'rich'
  • Gurges 'spendthrift'
  • Rullus 'beggar'
  • Sabula 'a talkative person'
  • Publicola 'one who works the people'
  • Plebicola 'one who works the plebs'
  • Caldus 'warm'
  • Acidinus 'sharpish'



Conditions/Relations


  • Faustus 'fortunate'
  • Fostlus = Faustulus (diminutive)
  • Felix 'fortunate'
  • Donatus 'gifted'
  • Auctus ' increased'
  • Liber 'free'
  • Spurinus 'illegitimate,'
  • Cordus 'born late in the season'
  • Proculus
  • Primus 'first'
  • Septimus ( seventh '
  • Postumus 'last born'
  • Maximus 'eldest'
  • Priscus 'old'
  • Geminus ' twin'
  • Gemellus 'twin'
  • Trigeminus 'triplet'
  • Frater 'brother'
  • Paterculus 'daddy'


Occupation-Based



  • Figulus 'potter'
  • Pictor 'painter'
  • Fullo 'fuller'
  • Natta or Nacta 'fuller,'
  • Faber 'smith'
  • Lanio 'butcher'
  • Libo 'sprinkler,'
  • Subulo 'flute player'
  • Thurarius 'frankincense dealer'
  • Bubulcus 'cowherd'
  • F(P?)ictor 'baker of offering cakes'
  • Cursor 'runner'
  • Mensor 'measurer'
  • Pollio 'polisher of arms'
  • Cornicen 'trumpeter'
  • Nauta 'sailor'
  • Metellus 'mercenary,'
  • Triarius, a soldier serving among the triarii
  • Salinator 'salt-dealer'
  • Camillus, a noble youth employed in religious offices
  • Flamen
  • Flamiininus, from flamen
  • Augurinus, from augur
  • Censorinus, from censor
  • Rex 'ruler'
  • Regulus 'prince '
  • Hortator 'exhorter'
  • Flaccinator, from flacceo, to flag,
  • Sulca 'furrower,'
  • Numitor 'arranger'


Objects




  • Spinther 'bracelet'
  • Crista 'crest'
  • Centho, a cap worn over the helmet
  • Pera 'wallet'
  • Fimbria 'fringe'
  • Laenas 'cloaked,'
  • Argentillus, from argentum, silver
  • Torquatus 'adorned with a torques'
  • Asellus 'little ass '
  • Asina 'she ass'
  • Catulus 'puppy'
  • Caninus 'doggish'
  • Vitulus 'calf'
  • Trio 'plow ox'
  • Vaccus, from vacca, cow (?)
  • Verris 'male swine'
  • Mus 'mouse'
  • Murena, a shellfish (referring to the color of his dress)
  • Stelio 'newt, crafty fellow'
  • Merula 'blackbird'
  • Corvus 'raven'
  • Turdus 'thrush'
  • Buteo 'hawk'
  • Gragulus (= Graculus) 'jackdaw'
  • Gracchus 'jackdaw,'
  • Todillus, a kind of small bird
  • Musca 'fly'
  • Cossus, larva under the bark of trees
  • Caepio, from caepa, an onion
  • Cicero, from cicer, a small pea
  • Fabatus, from faba, a bean
  • Fundulus 'sausage '
  • Aculeo, from aculeus, a spur
  • Malleolus 'small hammer'
  • Dolabella 'little pickax'
  • Tegula 'tile'
  • Tubulus 'small tube'
  • Piso 'mortar'
  • Gillo 'cooling vessel'
  • Culleo, from culleus, a leathern bag
  • Maso or Masso, from massa, a lump
  • Scipio 'staff'
  • Buxsus 'boxwood'
  • Carbo 'coal,' also used of a thing of small value
  • Pulvillus 'little pillow'
  • Stolo 'branch, sucker'
  • Ahala 'wing'
  • Corbo, from corbis, basket
  • Saxa 'rocks'
  • Saxula 'little rocks'
  • Arvina 'grease'
  • Lucullus, from lucus, a grov
  • Ralla (= radula) 'scraper'
  • Cerco, from KepKcos 'tail' (?)
  • Posca, a drink of vinegar and water
  • Scylla, the sea monster
  • Merenda 'afternoon luncheon'
  • Musa 'muse'
  • Limetanus, from limites
  • Alimentus, from alimentum, nourishment


Geographic Names



  • Antias, from Antium
  • Fidenas, from Fidenae
  • Sufenas, from Sufena
  • Asprenas
  • Aesillas
  • Supinas
  • Menas, Umbrian, and perhaps a gentile name
  • Fregellanus, from Fregellae
  • Tusculanus, from Tusculum
  • Camerinus, from Cameria
  • Medullinus, from Medullum
  • Coriolanus, from Corioli
  • Setinus, from Setia
  • Norbanus, from Norba
  • Collatinus, from Collatia
  • Regillensis, from Regillus
  • Nomentanus, from Nomentum
  • Pyrgensis, from Pyrgi
  • Veientanus, from Veii
  • Calenus, from Cales
  • Nolanus, from Nola
  • Atellanus, from Atella
  • Seranus, from Serranum
  • Caudinus, from Caudium
  • Tempsanus, from Temesa
  • Tarentinus, from Tarentum
  • Sarranus, from Sarra
  • Massiliota, from Massilia
  • Atratinus, from Atratus
  • Silanus, from Sila
  • Capitolinus, from the Capitolium
  • Tuscivicanus, from Tuscivicus
  • Coelimontanus, from Coelemontium
  • Arsa, a city of Spain
  • Sarra, the city of Tyre
  • Croto
  • Istra 'Istrian'
  • Numida
  • Sabinus
  • Lucanus
  • Marsus
  • Apulus
  • Umber
  • Volscus
  • Ligur
  • Gallus
  • Siculus
  • Hispanus
  • Hispallus ' little Spaniard'
  • Cerretanus, from the Cerretani
  • Vetto or Vecto, from the Vectones
  • Geta, from the Getae
  • Surus 'Syrian'
  • Creticus, from Crete
  • Isauricus, from the Isauri
  • Africanus, from Africa
  • Asiagenus (= 'Asiagenes) 'born in Asia'
  • Messala, from Messana
  • Mugillanus
  • Tuditanus
  • Vibulanus
  • Turrinus
  • Tricipitinus
  • Pontenus


Derived Names




  • Clodianus
  • Nonianus
  • Cestianus
  • Vinicianus
  • Octavianus
  • Caeicianus
  • Aemilianus
  • Sextianus
  • Messianus
  • Sempronianus
  • Petrinianus
  • Rullianus
  • Satrienus
  • derived from gentile names
  • Saturninus, from Saturnus
  • Mamercinus, from Mamercus
  • Marcellinus, from Marcellus
  • Marcellus, a diminutive of Marcus
  • Lucillus, a diminutive of Lucius
  • Silenus, the companion of Bacchus
  • Myrtilus, the son of Mercury



Foreign Names


Greek:


  • Philus
  • Philippus
  • Thermus
  • Sophus
  • Philo
  • Matho
  • Molo
  • Gritto
  • Bursio
  • Tympanus
  • Hupsaeus
  • Basilius
  • Megellus
  • Pitio

Etruscan:

  • Spurinna
  • Sisenna
  • Siperna
  • Perperna
  • Perpena
  • Thalna

Oscan:

  • Papus
  • Paccius
  • Pacilus
  • Salvius;

Umbrian:

  • Maro

Celtic:

  • Matuginensis

Alphabetical Order

Irene Hahn has kindly alphabetized them:

Latin Cognomina

Traits

Ahenobarbus 'bronze (colored) beard'
Albinus 'whitish (haired ?)'
Albus 'white (haired?) '
Ambustus 'sun-burned'
Balbus, Blaesus 'stammerer'
Barba 'long-beard'
Barbatus 'bearded'
Barbo 'long-beard'
Bassus 'stout'
Blasio 'stammerer'
Brocchus 'prominent teeth'
Bucca 'big cheeks,' or 'bawler'
Caesar 'hairy'
Callus 'thick-skinned,' or Galus
Calvinus 'baldish'
Calvus 'bald'
Capito 'big-head'
Chilo 'large-lipped'
Cincinnatus 'curly hair'
Cinnus 'curly hair'
Codes 'blind in one eye,' for Kyklops
Comatus 'long-haired'
Cotta 'cowlick' (?)1
Coxsa 'prominent hips'
Crassipes 'thick-foot '
Crassus 'fat'
Crispinus 'curly hair,'s
Curio 'emaciated'
Curvus 'bent'
Dentio, Denter, 'prominent teeth'
Dossenus, Dorso 'hunchback'
Drusus 'stiff'
Elva or Helva 'light bay hair'
Falto (-= Falco) 'a person with the great toes turned in'
Flaccus 'flop-eared'
Flavus 'fair-haired'
Florus 'shining (complexioned)'
Fronto, Cilo 'prominent forehead'
Galba 'fat-paunch'
Glabrio 'bald-head'
Labeo 'thick lips'
Laeca 'left-handed'
Laevinus 'left-handed'
Lanatus 'woolly'
Licinus 'bent upward' (of the nose ?)
Longinus 'longish'
Longus 'tall'
Luscus, Lusci- nus 'one-eyed'
Macatus 'spotted'
Macer 'lean'
Macerinus 'leanish'
Mammula 'little- breast'
Mancinus 'maimed'
Mento 'long chin'
Nasica 'prominent nose'
Naso 'large nose'
Nerva 'sinewy'
Niger 'dark'
Paetus, Paetinus 'blink-eyed '
Pansa 'broad-foot'
Paullus 'short'
Pedo 'broad-foot,' from pes
Pennus 'sharp (featured)'
Peticus 'scabby' (?)
Plancus 'flat-foot'
Plautus flat-foot'
Pulcher 'handsome'
Purpureo 'rosy (complexioned) '
Rocus 'hoarse'
Rufinus 'reddish-haired'
Rufio 'red-haired'
Rufus 'red-haired'
Rutilus 'red- haired'
Scaeva (sc. manus) 'left-handed'
Scaevola, diminutive of the same
Scapula 'prominent shoulders'
Scaurus 'swollen ankles'
Silo 'pug-nosed'
Silus 'pug-nosed'
Strabo 'squinter'
Sura, Sulla 'prominent calves'
Tubero, Tubertus 'bumpy'
Unimanus 'one-handed'
Valgus 'bow-legged'
Varus 'knock-kneed'
Verrucosus 'warty'
Vulso 'plucked'

Habits

Acidinus 'sharpish'
Alienus 'foreign'
Augustus 'majestic'
Bibaculus 'tippler,'
Bibulus 'tippler'
Brutus 'coarse'
Caldus 'warm'
Carus 'dear'
Casca 'old-fashioned,'
Cato 'sagacious,'
Celer 'swift'
Dives 'rich'
Fessus 'wearied'
Frugi 'temperate'
Gurges 'spendthrift'
Imperiosus 'haughty'
Lentulus 'rather slow'
Lepidus 'agreeable'
Magnus 'great'
Molliculus 'voluptuous'
Nero 'noble'
Nobilior 'nobler'
Pius 'dutiful'
Plebicola 'one who works the plebs'
Potitus 'boss'
Publicola 'one who works the people'
Regillus 'royal'
Rullus 'beggar'
Rusticus 'living in the country, countrified'
Sabula 'a talkative person'
Severus 'stern'
Structus 'built up'
Tappo, Tappulus 'tippler'
Tremulus 'shaking'
Varro and Varo (= Baro?) 'a foolish person'
Venox 'given to hunting'
Violens 'furious'


Conditions/Relations

Auctus ' increased'
Cordus 'born late in the season'
Donatus 'gifted'
Faustus 'fortunate'
Felix 'fortunate'
Fostlus = Faustulus (diminutive)
Frater 'brother'
Gemellus 'twin'
Geminus ' twin'
Liber 'free'
Maximus 'eldest'
Paterculus 'daddy'
Postumus 'last born'
Primus 'first'
Priscus 'old'
Proculus
Septimus ( seventh '
Spurinus 'illegitimate,'
Trigeminus 'triplet'

Occupation-Based

Augurinus, from augur
Bubulcus 'cowherd'
Camillus, a noble youth employed in religious offices
Censorinus, from censor
Cornicen 'trumpeter'
Cursor 'runner'
F(P?)ictor 'baker of offering cakes'
Faber 'smith'
Figulus 'potter'
Flaccinator, from flacceo, to flag,
Flamen
Flamiininus, from flamen
Fullo 'fuller'
Hortator 'exhorter'
Lanio 'butcher'
Libo 'sprinkler,'
Mensor 'measurer'
Metellus 'mercenary,'
Natta or Nacta 'fuller,'
Nauta 'sailor'
Numitor 'arranger'
Pictor 'painter'
Pollio 'polisher of arms'
Regulus 'prince '
Rex 'ruler'
Salinator 'salt-dealer'
Subulo 'flute player'
Sulca 'furrower,'
Thurarius 'frankincense dealer'
Triarius, a soldier serving among the triarii

Objects

Aculeo, from aculeus, a spur
Ahala 'wing'
Alimentus, from alimentum, nourishment
Argentillus, from argentum, silver
Arvina 'grease'
Asellus 'little ass '
Asina 'she ass'
Buteo 'hawk'
Buxsus 'boxwood'
Caepio, from caepa, an onion
Caninus 'doggish'
Carbo 'coal,' also used of a thing of small value
Catulus 'puppy'
Centho, a cap worn over the helmet
Cerco, from KepKcos 'tail' (?)
Cicero, from cicer, a small pea
Corbo, from corbis, basket
Corvus 'raven'
Cossus, larva under the bark of trees
Crista 'crest'
Culleo, from culleus, a leathern bag
Dolabella 'little pickax'
Fabatus, from faba, a bean
Fimbria 'fringe'
Fundulus 'sausage '
Gillo 'cooling vessel'
Gracchus 'jackdaw,'
Gragulus (= Graculus) 'jackdaw'
Laenas 'cloaked,'
Limetanus, from limites
Lucullus, from lucus, a grov
Malleolus 'small hammer'
Maso or Masso, from massa, a lump
Merenda 'afternoon luncheon'
Merula 'blackbird'
Murena, a shellfish (referring to the color of his dress)
Mus 'mouse'
Musa 'muse'
Musca 'fly'
Pera 'wallet'
Piso 'mortar'
Posca, a drink of vinegar and water
Pulvillus 'little pillow'
Ralla (= radula) 'scraper'
Saxa 'rocks'
Saxula 'little rocks'
Scipio 'staff'
Scylla, the sea monster
Spinther 'bracelet'
Stelio 'newt, crafty fellow'
Stolo 'branch, sucker'
Tegula 'tile'
Todillus, a kind of small bird
Torquatus 'adorned with a torques'
Trio 'plow ox'
Tubulus 'small tube'
Turdus 'thrush'
Vaccus, from vacca, cow (?)
Verris 'male swine'
Vitulus 'calf'

Geographic Names

Aesillas
Africanus, from Africa
Antias, from Antium
Apulus
Arsa, a city of Spain
Asiagenus (= 'Asiagenes) 'born in Asia'
Asprenas
Atellanus, from Atella
Atratinus, from Atratus
Calenus, from Cales
Camerinus, from Cameria
Capitolinus, from the Capitolium
Caudinus, from Caudium
Cerretanus, from the Cerretani
Coelimontanus, from Coelemontium
Collatinus, from Collatia
Coriolanus, from Corioli
Creticus, from Crete
Croto
Fidenas, from Fidenae
Fregellanus, from Fregellae
Gallus
Geta, from the Getae
Hispallus ' little Spaniard'
Hispanus
Isauricus, from the Isauri
Istra 'Istrian'
Ligur
Lucanus
Marsus
Massiliota, from Massilia
Medullinus, from Medullum
Menas, Umbrian, and perhaps a gentile name
Messala, from Messana
Mugillanus
Nolanus, from Nola
Nomentanus, from Nomentum
Norbanus, from Norba
Numida
Pontenus
Pyrgensis, from Pyrgi
Regillensis, from Regillus
Sabinus
Sarra, the city of Tyre
Sarranus, from Sarra
Seranus, from Serranum
Setinus, from Setia
Siculus
Silanus, from Sila
Sufenas, from Sufena
Supinas
Surus 'Syrian'
Tarentinus, from Tarentum
Tempsanus, from Temesa
Tricipitinus
Tuditanus
Turrinus
Tuscivicanus, from Tuscivicus
Tusculanus, from Tusculum
Umber
Veientanus, from Veii
Vetto or Vecto, from the Vectones
Vibulanus
Volscus

Derived Names

Aemilianus
Caeicianus
Cestianus
Clodianus
derived from gentile names
Lucillus, a diminutive of Lucius
Mamercinus, from Mamercus
Marcellinus, from Marcellus
Marcellus, a diminutive of Marcus
Messianus
Myrtilus, the son of Mercury
Nonianus
Octavianus
Petrinianus
Rullianus
Satrienus
Saturninus, from Saturnus
Sempronianus
Sextianus
Silenus, the companion of Bacchus
Vinicianus


Foreign Names

Greek:

Basilius
Bursio
Gritto
Hupsaeus
Matho
Megellus
Molo
Philippus
Philo
Philus
Pitio
Sophus
Thermus
Tympanus

Etruscan:

Perpena
Perperna
Siperna
Sisenna
Spurinna
Thalna

Oscan:

Paccius
Pacilus
Papus
Salvius

Umbrian:

Maro

Celtic:

Matuginensis

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